Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion Framework (2023)

Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion Framework (1)

Foreword

As a mission-driven organization that applies the best available psychological science to benefit society and improve lives, we recognize that the inclusion of diverse people, viewpoints and experiences are key to our success. I strongly believe that championing equity, diversity, and inclusion (EDI) is not just the right thing to do, it is the smart thing to do. As we implement our strategic plan, EDI serves as a critical lens to drive our strategic priorities and measure the magnitude of our impact. It is essential that we embed EDI throughout all aspects of our work.

APA has devoted significant attention to EDI since the late 1960s. For several decades, our boards, committees, divisions, and staff have worked diligently to advance EDI. While our work has been a high priority, it has not always been coordinated and integrated. In June 2018, APA began to develop an EDI framework to guide APA’s future EDI planning and the work of our chief diversity officer, Maysa Akbar, PhD.

This process consisted of multiple rounds of input from staff, leadership, and experts across our membership base. This evolving EDI framework draws on APA’s 2005 diversity policy, its 2007 diversity plans and reports, and best practices from the field of organizational EDI. APA’s EDI framework reflects our view that equity, diversity, and inclusion are vital to the progress of our Association, the field of psychology, and broader society.

The EDI framework also builds upon the work done to date and provides the foundation for the next phase of EDI strategic planning, including the development of iterative goals and metrics. The critical work ahead will enable us to maximize the impact of our EDI efforts. We commit to engaging in a collaborative process that systematically and comprehensively advances EDI, our strategic priorities, and APA’s vision and mission.


Arthur C. Evans, Jr., PhD
CEO, American Psychological Association

A brief history of psychology

The 2020 report on “Protecting and defending our people: Nakni tushka anowa (The warrior’s path),” written by APA’s Division 45, Society for the Psychological Study of Culture, Ethnicity and Race, recounts the history of psychology’s adoption and perpetuation of U.S. colonialism and its contribution to systemic and structural barriers for Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC).

The report states that, mainstream psychology in the US has at its foundation a White Eurocentric perspective. Although research suggests that BIPOC scientists tend to produce more innovative scholarship, these innovations have been systemically discounted by the field of psychology, academic institutions, and the publication process in ways that diminish representation and impact in the field. BIPOC perspectives in theory, research and applied contexts have not been seriously considered to have the disciplinary rigor assumed for the mainstream perspective. Race and ethnicity have been significantly underemphasized in peer-reviewed publications of psychological science. The demographics of psychology faculty and of new doctoral graduates in psychology do not mirror the diverse population of the US. Similarly, the membership of the APA does not reflect the diverse demographics of the US, and the racial and ethnic demographics of APA have changed little since 2007.

For a detailed history please read the full report : APA Division 45 Warrior’s Path Presidential Task Force (2020). Protecting and defending our people: Nakni tushka anowa (The warrior’s path)

Rationale for EDI framework

Beginning in the 1960s, grassroots activism groups, Black psychologists throughout the nation, as well as various APA members and EDI- focused divisions, challenged APA to reflect and respond to the lack of diversity of its membership and improve oppressive structures within the organization and profession. Their leadership, advocacy, and involvement contributed significantly to APA’s acknowledgement and advancement with respect to EDI.

Since the late 1960s, APA has created boards and committees, divisions, and headquarters offices, focused on the concerns of marginalized groups (e.g., BIPOC communities; women; older adults; lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender persons; and individuals with disabilities) within the organization, within psychology, and in the broader society beyond the field of psychology. The representation and full participation of APA members and other psychologists from these groups within the leadership and membership of APA and in the field is an important objective for APA. APA will examine its history and will begin to engage in a process towards reconciliation and healing. Additionally, APA will continue its work to broaden the representation of diverse groups within the organization and profession—understanding that a heterogeneous association of people of diverse backgrounds and standpoints is critical for excellence and that embedding a focus on EDI is essential for APA to fulfill its mission to advance the creation, communication, and application of psychological knowledge to benefit society and improve lives (APA, Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs, 2005; see APA, Presidential Task Force, 2012).

Thus, for several decades, APA boards and committees, divisions, and offices have engaged in important and substantive EDI work. However, these efforts have been largely uncoordinated (APA, Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs, 2005; Leong et al., 2017). With the engagement of its membership and staff, APA has participated in a wide range of diversity activities, including the development of an Interim Diversity Implementation Plan in 2007 to guide and coordinate them. However, the diversity plan was never fully implemented. For that reason, the chief executive officer of APA commissioned this framework in 2018.

A systemic approach to organizational EDI needs to be intentional and engage all areas of the organization, thus incorporating an EDI lens into all aspects of the organization (APA, 2008; Church et al., 2014; Cox, 2001; Smith, 2009; Sue, 2008; Williams, 2013). More than a disparate set of activities and events is vital (Smith, 2012; Williams, 2013). Instead, structural and cultural shifts, including organizational accountability, are important to create substantive, transformative, and sustainable change (Holvino et al., 2004; Williams, 2013). And it is important to address both first order and second order (or transformative) change—the former reflecting minor, incremental adjustments and the latter indicating new assumptions and patterns governing organizational life (APA, Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs, 2005).

More than a disparate set of activities and events is required. Instead, structural and cultural shifts are important to create  substantive,  transformative, and  sustainable  change.

EDI strategic plan components

Vision statement

APA’s vision for EDI articulates the organization’s ultimate aspirations and thus provides a guide to the desired outcomes of EDI activities (See Esty, Griffin, & Hirsch, 1995; Holvino et al., 2004). The following statement, based on APA’s strategic plan, articulates APA’s EDI vision to successfully integrate EDI across the organization and the discipline. The EDI framework is an ever-evolving document and should be used as a foundational tool to support the achievement of APA’s vision for EDI, including creating a common language and long-term coordinated strategy towards dismantling racism.

APA strives for an accessible, equitable, and inclusive psychology that promotes human rights, fairness, and dignity for all.

Mission statement

To advance EDI through psychological science that champions thought leadership, innovation and excellence.

(Video) Justice, Equity, Diversity and Inclusion Framework by GenderSmart Workshop

Guiding principles

The guiding principles of APA’s EDI framework address the basic assumptions that are associated with the best practices in organizational EDI work. (See Hayles, 2013; Williams, 2013). The guiding principles are a prerequisite for achieving success in EDI as articulated in APA’s strategic plan.

APA itself

  • Will take account for the Association’s contribution to social hierarchies and inequities within the Association and profession. APA is committed to uplifting the voices of those who have been harmed and will learn from its history to create a more inclusive, equitable, and diverse field of psychology.
  • Is a global partner in the promotion of psychological practice, science, and education to address societal and global challenges, including structural racism, White supremacy, xenophobia, nativism, and other forms of discrimination.
  • Actively champions EDI throughout the entire organization and establishes procedures to ensure that APA’s institutional practices are grounded in our commitment to promote diversity, and to advance equity, and inclusion (see Cox, 2001; Holvino et al., 2004; Kalev, Dobbin & Kelly, 2006; Smith, 2009).
  • Fosters an organizational culture that opposes destructive social hierarchies of all forms, including but not limited to racism, sexism, classism, heterosexism, ageism, and ableism; thereby developing norms in which social hierarchies, racism, injustice, inequity, and exclusion are discussed candidly, while proactively and constructively addressed. (see Borrayo, 2008; APA CDWG, 2017).
  • Utilizes a strategic EDI roadmap that includes goals and objectives, and monitors, evaluates, and evolves those goals in an iterative fashion. (see Smith, 2009; Williams, 2013).
  • Uses a matrixed organizational strategy to support the EDI agenda—for example, promoting collaborative EDI implementation between and across directorates, boards, and committees; accountability mechanisms and reward systems to incentivize constituents to engage in EDI work. (See APA, 2008; CDWG, 2017; Cox. 2001; Holvino et al., 2004; Kalev et al., 2006; Sue, 2008; Williams, 2013).

The field of psychology

  • Works toward deconstructing inequalities and inequities that exist within psychological science, including how science is conducted, reported, reviewed, and disseminated.
  • Recognizes that all human beings have biases, privileges, and prejudices and that the task is to develop awareness of biases, to strive to mitigate and diminish the impact of those biases, and to develop skills to engage and work effectively with people and communities from diverse and underrepresented social identity groups. (See Banaji & Greenwald, 2013).
  • Advocates that learning institutions incorporate essential pedagogy about racism and health into standard coursework, as a step toward leading learning institutions to acknowledge their supportive roles in the system of structural racism. (See Bailey, Zinzi D et al., 2017).
  • Champions the study of individual and institutional racism in order to measure exposure to systems and structures by identifying the historical harms, testing the connections between psychological mechanisms and outcomes, and providing recommendations for systems of change. (See Trawalter, Sophie et al., 2020).
  • Promotes a culture of evidence-based and holistic approaches, while applying a learning orientation, where the status of EDI is continuously evaluated and oriented toward ongoing growth, development, and improvement. (See APA, 2008; Cox, 2001; Holvino et al., 2004; Smith, 2009, 2012; Williams, 2013).
  • Actively seeks to center the perspectives and voices of social identity groups that are or have been disenfranchised or marginalized. (See APA, 2005).

Society

  • Understands that EDI, human rights, racial justice, and social change are never fully achieved; that they must be continually sought after, reexamined, and embraced; and that new areas of inequity and exclusion will inevitably emerge and need to be addressed. (See Adams et al., 2013).
  • Commits to applying psychological science to create a more equitable and inclusive world.
  • Elevates and honors the voices and perspectives of marginalized social and intersectional identities.

The EDI model

The APA EDI model has three levels, as articulated in the vision statement:

  1. APA itself, including volunteer leaders, members, and staff;
  2. Field of psychology, as a discipline and profession, including pathway programs, educational/training programs, and institutions, offices, and programs that shape and determine policies and practices for the discipline; and
  3. Society, all people and communities throughout society whom psychological science, scholarship, education, advocacy, and practice benefit.

This tripartite approach differentiates internally focused work (APA as an organization and entity) from externally focused work (the field of psychology and society).

Figure 1 depicts the EDI model, which is influenced by Sue’s (2001) conceptual framework for incorporating multidimensional facets of cultural competence into psychology. Sue’s model examines cultural competency at the micro level (e.g., the individual) and at the macro level (e.g., the profession of psychology, organizations, and the broader society), highlighting the criticality of working in a collaborative fashion to remove major barriers along the four levels: individual, professional, organizational, and societal in order to move toward cultural competence. Sue’s model has been adapted to reflect how APA will approach the pursuit of equity, diversity, and inclusion within the Association, the field of psychology, and throughout society.

Figure 1 identifies APA at the center of the model, and the field of psychology, society, and the work of APA are in the surrounding circles. The positions of the circles reflect that APA has internal constituencies with which it engages, whereas much of APA’s work aims to shape and influence the field of psychology, which then fosters the application of psychological work throughout society. APA’s efforts radiate outward through these levels. However, the influence is bidirectional: APA both affects and is affected by the field and society. For example, the Association’s knowledge of how best to serve communities that have been marginalized is intimately tied to active hearing, listening, and internalizing a model of being responsive. In an iterative fashion, APA is committed to engaging in a multidirectional feedback model, which is essential to fulfilling our mission.

The work of EDI identified across institutions and industries has tended to fall into the following broad categories:

  1. leadership and infrastructure;
  2. access, equity, and success;
  3. organizational climate; and
  4. core work of the institution (Henderson, 2014; Shorter-Gooden, 2014; Smith, 2009; Williams, 2013).

This common set of broad categories provided the foundation for the domains in APA’s EDI model that are represented within the three levels. The core EDI work of APA as an institution is identified in the model as science, practice, education, and advocacy that is inclusive and equitable, while responding to the unique challenges and opportunities of social cultural diversity.

The APA level addresses the experiences and outcomes for APA’s volunteer leaders, members, and staff at all levels. Sustained work toward excellence in all five domains, across the breadth of APA, will ensure that APA is an equitable, diverse, and inclusive organization. The five domains at the APA level are as follows:

  • Leadership and infrastructure
    The center of the APA model denotes the vital importance of a leadership structure for EDI and an organizational infrastructure that supports the work.
  • Psychological safety
    The climate in which the experience of APA is safe, welcoming, engaging, and affirming by volunteer leaders, members, and staff of all social identity groups and intersections, especially those most impacted by systemic oppression. It includes being courageous to express vulnerability, to own mistakes and transform them into learning opportunities, and to trust that judgment will not be issued for doing so. This will require a deep understanding of the historical challenges in the field of psychology, an acknowledgement of who has been harmed, the impact of that harm, and a commitment to cultivating an honest and transparent relationship with marginalized communities.
  • Inclusive policies and practices
    The maintenance, further creation and implementation of inclusive policies, procedures, and practices within the organization.
  • Cultural and emotional intelligence
    The capability to provide education and training that is culturally responsive, adaptable, relatable, and provided with cultural and social humility and competence, for APA volunteer leaders, members, and staff.
  • Access and equity
    The commitment to diversity, social justice, and equity within APA

The field of psychology level represents the array of policies and practices grounded in psychological science for the discipline, as well as the pathway of academic and internship programs and institutions that serve to educate and train prospective psychologists and that provide postdoctoral continuing education and professional support for existing psychologists. APA will advocate for education and training to be grounded in Cultural and Emotional Intelligence for all students/trainees/pre-and post-docs across the range of content, curricula, and training/degree programs; for Inclusive Policies & Practices in all areas of the discipline and in the profession, including the elimination of policies and practices that reinforce structural injustices and amplify inequities; that embodies Psychological Safety by cultivating a culture and climate that is welcoming and engaging across the field of psychology; and for Access & Equity throughout the field.

The society level is the sphere in which the mission to advance psychological science and knowledge to benefit society and improve lives is realized—in the United States and globally. The level comprises an integrated EDI paradigm in the following four domains: Science, Education, Advocacy, and Practice, which all work in tandem to achieve APA’s strategic priorities. The Society level signifies that APA’s ultimate goal is to shape the creation, communication, access to, and application of psychological knowledge and information, the practice of psychology, and the policies that impact psychological well-being in ways that benefit and promote equity.


FIGURE 1.The APA Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion Model

Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion Framework (2)

Table 1. Levels and Domains of the APA Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion (EDI) Model
LevelsDomainsDefinitions
APAInternally focused EDI work aimed at building the capacity of the organization itself. Work in this area addresses staff, volunteer leaders, and members, with the specific intention of strengthening APA and its work.
Leadership and InfrastructureMaintenance, further creation, and implementation within APA of structures (e.g., offices, committees), job positions, policies, procedures, and practices that support leadership for EDI and build and support an infrastructure for EDI influence.
Psychological SafetyA psychologically safe environment within APA—among the staff, members, and volunteers; in governance groups, boards, and committees, and divisions; and at all gatherings (in person or virtual), such as conventions and meetings, that foster the full inclusion and safe engagement of people of all social identities and social identity intersections, prioritizing those who are societally marginalized and/or underrepresented.
Inclusive Policies and PracticesMaintenance, further creation, and implementation of inclusive policies, procedures, and practices within the organization.
Cultural and Emotional IntelligenceEducation and training of APA volunteer leaders, members, and staff to enhance their knowledge, skills, and capability to adapt in diverse environments with confidence, and to make informed judgments based on observations and evidence as opposed to stereotypes and biases. Focuses on centering the values, beliefs, and attitudes of people from different cultures, while responding with informed empathy and real understanding
Access and EquityAPA will continue promoting diversity, social justice, and equity in the organization. The organization prioritizes its commitment to fostering the engagement and participation in APA of marginalized groups and groups that have been historically underrepresented in our society.
FieldAPA’s work to contribute to a more diverse, equitable, and inclusive field of psychology, including initiatives that impact pathways into the field; the education and training of undergraduate and graduate students, trainees, interns, postdocs, and psychologists; and policies and practices for the discipline. Focuses on the work that APA does to build the capacity of the discipline and its personnel. Initiatives in the field of psychology are expected to have a capacity-building impact now and in the future.
Access and EquityCompositional diversity, social justice, and equitable outcomes for students, trainees, postdocs, and psychologists at all levels in the field of psychology. Focus on representation, fair treatment, access, opportunity, and advancement for those who are societally marginalized and historically underrepresented in the field of psychology—eliminating structural barriers and scientific practices that have prevented the full participation of these groups (e.g., eliminating White supremacy in psychological science; eliminating barriers for women accessing leadership positions in psychology).
Psychological SafetyCreate and sustain psychological safety in various environments across the field of psychology— in the education and training of undergraduate and graduate students, trainees, interns, postdocs, and psychologists that fosters the full inclusion and safe engagement of all, especially those from marginalized social identities and social identity intersections
Inclusive Policies and PracticesMaintenance, further creation, and implementation of inclusive policies, procedures, and practices in the discipline and profession of psychology
Cultural and Emotional IntelligenceEducation and training, including faculty/supervisor development, that addresses cross-cultural and diversity issues across the range of topics, curricula, and training/degree programs in the field of psychology, implemented with cultural and emotional intelligence
SocietyWhere APA’s mission to advance psychological science and knowledge to benefit society and improve people’s lives is realized—in the United States and globally. The level of programs and activities that are externally focused—beyond the association and the field of psychology—and have a direct impact on, or advocate directly for, clients, consultees, organizations, communities, and the public, with a particular focus on reaching those who are societally marginalized. EDI will be integrated into all areas of psychological practice
AdvocacyEfforts to advocate and affect change on issues related to the well-being and psychological health of diverse (and particularly societally marginalized) communities, including access to and provision of inclusive and equitable psychological services and the use of psychological science to advocate for the dismantling of systemic oppression that creates and perpetuates health disparities. Advocacy work through the inclusion of marginalized voices in research, policies, and legislation in the courts, in government, in intergovernmental organizations, and in media
EducationInvestment in development and evolution of psychological information and educational resources, while centering the voices of those who are societally marginalized to appropriately enhance the public’s capacity to inform and apply psychological knowledge to enhance individual and community well-being.
PracticePsychological practice, including clinical, counseling, school, community, consulting, organizational, and other professional services, as well as organizational leadership by psychologists—all aimed at improving the well-being and psychological health of individuals, organizations, and/or communities, particularly those who are societally marginalized.
ScienceDevelopment, implementation, and dissemination of equitable psychological science, while centering the voices of those who are societally marginalized with the aim of a process and outcome that has a positive and equitable impact on the well-being and psychological health of individuals and communities, particularly those who are societally marginalized.

Glossary of terms

ableism: stereotyping, prejudicial attitudes, discriminatory behavior, and social oppression toward people with disabilities in order to inhibit the rights and well-being of people with disabilities, which is currently the largest minority group in the United States.

access: the elimination of discrimination and other barriers that contribute to inequitable opportunities to join and be a part of a work group, organization, or community.

bias:APA defines bias as partiality: an inclination or predisposition for or against something. Motivational and cognitive biases are two main categories studied in decision-making analysis. Motivational biases are conclusions drawn due to self-interest, social pressures, or organization-based needs, whereas cognitive biases are judgments that go against what is considered rational, and some of these are attributed to implicit reasoning.

climate: the degree to which community members feel included or excluded in the work group, organization, or community.

(Video) Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion Framework (EDI)

discrimination: the differential treatment of the members of different gender, racial, ethnic, religious, national, or other groups. Discrimination is usually the behavioral manifestation of prejudice and therefore involves negative, hostile, and injurious treatment of the members of rejected groups.

diverse: involving the representation or composition of various social identity groups in a work group, organization, or community. The focus is on social identities that correspond to societal differences in power and privilege, and thus to the marginalization of some groups based on specific attributes—e.g., race, ethnicity, culture, gender, gender identity and expression, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, religion, spirituality, disability, age, national origin, immigration status, and language. (Other identities may also be considered where there is evidence of disparities in power and privilege.) There is a recognition that people have multiple identities and that social identities are intersectional and have different salience and impact in different contexts.

equity: providing resources according to the need to help diverse populations achieve their highest state of health and other functioning. Equity is an ongoing process of assessing needs, correcting historical inequities, and creating conditions for optimal outcomes by members of all social identity groups.

gender:the socially constructed ideas about behavior, actions, and roles a particular sex performs.

human rights:Defined by the United Nations as “universal legal rights that protect individuals and groups from those behaviors that interfere with freedom and human dignity.”

inclusion:an environment that offers affirmation, celebration, and appreciation of different approaches, styles, perspectives, and experiences, thus allowing all individuals to bring in their whole selves (and all of their identities) and to demonstrate their strengths and capacity.

intersectionality:the ways in which forms of oppression (e.g., racism, sexism, homophobia, transphobia, ableism, xenophobia, classism, etc.) are interconnected and cannot be examined separately from one another.

oppression:occurs when one group has more access to power and privilege than another group, and when that power and privilege is used to maintain the status quo (i.e., domination of one group over another). Thus, oppression is both a state and a process, with the state of oppression being unequal group access to power and privilege, and the process of oppression being the ways in which inequality between groups is maintained.

pathway programs:programs (e.g., in secondary schools and colleges) that foster increased access by underrepresented groups to education, training, or a profession.

prejudice:a negative attitude toward another person or group formed in advance of any experience with that person or group. Prejudices include an affective component (emotions that range from mild nervousness to hatred), a cognitive component (assumptions and beliefs about groups, including stereotypes), and a behavioral component (negative behaviors, including discrimination and violence). They tend to be resistant to change because they distort the prejudiced individual’s perception of information pertaining to the group. For example, prejudice based on racial grouping is racism; prejudice based on perceived sex, or perceived gender is sexism; prejudice based on chronological age is ageism; and prejudice based on disability is ableism.

race and ethnicity:race and ethnicity are social constructions that powerfully shape social identity, but also influence our interactions, how we view others, and our social arrangements. According to APA’s Racial & Ethnic Guidelines (2019), race is defined as the social construction and categorization of people based on perceived shared physical traits that result in the maintenance of a sociopolitical hierarchy. The guidelines also define ethnicity as a characterization of people based on having a shared culture (e.g., language, food, music, dress, values, and beliefs) related to common ancestry and shared history.

racism:behavior, both individual and institutional, that is based on the belief in the superiority of one group of people and the inferiority of another because of national and ethnic origins.

sexual orientation: amultidimensional aspect of human experience, comprised of gendered patterns in attraction and behavior, identity related to these patterns, and associated experiences, such as fantasy.

social justice:commitment to creating fairness and equity in resources, rights, and treatment of marginalized individuals and groups of people who do not share equal power in society.

structural racism:results from laws, policies, and practices that produce cumulative, durable, and race-based inequalities, and includes the failure to correct previous laws and practices that were explicitly racist.

White privilege:unearned power that is afforded to White people on the basis of status rather than earned merit and protects White people from the consequences of being racist and benefitting from systemic racism; such power may come in the form of rights, benefits, social comforts, opportunities, or the ability to define what is normative or valued.

White supremacy:the ideological belief that biological and cultural Whiteness is superior, as well as normal and healthy—is a pervasive ideology that continues to polarize our nation and undergird racism.

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(Video) The Difference between Diversity, Inclusion and Equity

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Nkomo, S. M. (2014). Inclusion: Old wine in new bottles? In B. Ferdman & B. Deane (Eds.), Diversity at work: The practice of inclusion (pp. 580–592). Jossey-Bass.

Shireman, R. (2003, August 15). 10 questions college officials should ask about diversity. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 49(49), B10.

Shorter-Gooden, K. (2014). Creating diverse and inclusive colleges and universities. In B. Ferdman & B. Deane (Eds.), Diversity at work: The practice of inclusion (pp. 451–481). Jossey-Bass.

Smith, D. G. (2009). Diversity’s promise for higher education. Johns Hopkins Press.

Smith, D. G. (2012). Building institutional capacity for diversity and inclusion in academic medicine. Academic Medicine, 87(11), 1511–1515.

(Video) Diversity: Equity & Inclusion for HR Professionals

Sue, D. W. (2001). Multidimensional Facets of Cultural Competence. Counseling Psychologist - Couns Psychol. 29. 790-821. 10.1177/0011000001296002.

Sue, D. W. (2008). Multicultural organizational consultation: A social justice perspective. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 60(2), 157–169.

Tervalon, M., & Murray-Garcia, J. (1998). Cultural humility vs. cultural competence: Critical distinction in defining physician training outcomes. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 9(2), 117–125.

Trawalter, S., Bart-Plange, D. J., & Hoffman, K. M. (2020). A socioecological psychology of racism: making structures and history more visible. Current opinion in psychology, 32, 47–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2019.06.029

Williams, D. A. (2013). Strategic diversity leadership: Activating change and transformation in higher education. Stylus.

Williams, D. A., & Wade-Golden, K. C. (2013). The chief diversity officer: Strategy, structure, and change management. Stylus.

Winters, M. (2014). From diversity to inclusion: An inclusion equation. In B. M. Ferdman & B. R. Deane (Eds.), Diversity at work: The practice of inclusion (pp. 205–228). Jossey-Bass.

Yearby, R., Lewis, C. N., Gilbert, K. L., & Banks, K. (2020). Racism is a public health crisis: Here’s how to respond. Institute for Healing Justice and Equity, St. Louis University. https://tjcinstitute.com/wpcontent/uploads/2020/09/Racism-is-aPublic-Health-Crisis.pdf

Young, I. M. (2013). Five faces of oppression. In M. Adams, W. J. Blumenfeld, C. Castañeda, H. W. Hackman, M. L. Peters, & X. Zúñiga (Eds.), Readings for diversity and social justice (3rd ed., pp. 35–45). Routledge.

Acknowledgements

This report is being issued by APA’s Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion Office in the Executive Office on April 8, 2021.

Maysa Akbar, PhD, ABPP
Chief Diversity Officer
Executive Office
American Psychological Association

Triven L. Parker, MPH
Sr. Director, EDI Planning and Integration
Executive Office
American Psychological Association



The release of this framework could not have been possible without invaluable input and feedback from APA members, governance leaders, and staff. This ambitious and ever-evolving document will be central to the transformative change we all seek as an Association and as a field.

This document stands on the shoulders of decades of research and advocacy by many. To move those efforts into a guiding framework took enormous effort. For that, we want to acknowledge APA volunteer leaders, including members of the APA Board of Directors and Council of Representatives, the Council Diversity Leadership Group, the EDI Collaborative, and the Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations. We are also grateful for the powerful input from the Committee on Ethnic Minority Affairs, the Committee on Women in Psychology, and the Committee on Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity. We cherish the contributions of APA’s Staff Diversity Workgroup, the leadership and support in the Public Interest Directorate and the stewardship of the Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion Office in the Executive Office. Lastly, sincere appreciation to Shorter-Gooden Consulting, Kumea Shorter-Gooden, PhD, and Jacqueline Mac, MA, for working with APA members, governance leaders, and staff in the development of this framework.

We are committed to working collaboratively with our stakeholders across the organization and field to advance the EDI framework and related initiatives to create a more equitable, diverse, and inclusive association, discipline, and society.

Download in PDF format (520KB)

Related

  • Equity, diversity, and inclusion resources
  • Racism, bias, and discrimination resources
  • APA’s commitment to addressing systemic racism
  • APA bias-free language guidelines

American Psychological Association. (2021). Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion Framework. https://www.apa.org/about/apa/equity-diversity-inclusion/framework

FAQs

What is a DEI framework? ›

The Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion (DEI) Framework is the School of Medicine's strategy to grow and sustain a more diverse and inclusive working and learning environment that improves the health and wellbeing of North Carolinians and others whom we serve.

What is a diversity and inclusion framework? ›

The Framework seeks to provide strategic commitments to developing safe and inclusive environments across all diversity factors, including cultural, indigenous, ethnicity, gender, gender identity, sexual orientation, physical and intellectual disability, age, socio-economic status and religious/spiritual beliefs.

What are the principles of equity diversity and inclusion? ›

The principles of equity, diversity and inclusion relate to social justice, fairness, human rights and equitable access to opportunities. The Office of the Chief is committed to ensuring all MHPS staff work towards these principles.

What should be included in a diversity Equity and Inclusion Plan? ›

Steps to building a diversity and inclusion action plan
  • Age.
  • Gender identity or expression.
  • Ethnicity or national origin.
  • Race.
  • Family status.
  • Language.
  • Disability.
  • Organization function and level.
16 May 2022

What are the 4 pillars of diversity? ›

Four pillars of diversity and inclusion
  • Hire for merit and ability, rather than perceived culture fit. ...
  • Encourage input at all levels of the company. ...
  • Actively recruit in and engage with diverse communities. ...
  • Remove bias throughout the recruitment process.
27 Oct 2021

How do I create a DEI framework? ›

6 steps to building your DEI strategy from the ground up
  1. Find your motivation. Start by asking yourself: Why are we making DEI a priority for our business? ...
  2. Gather DEI data. ...
  3. Generate DEI Buy-in. ...
  4. Look to external resources. ...
  5. Start small. ...
  6. Ensure accountability.
17 Nov 2021

How do you create a diversity and inclusion framework? ›

Steps for Building a D&I Program
  1. Step 1: Collect the Data. ...
  2. Step 2: Identify Areas of Concern and Develop Objectives. ...
  3. Step 3: Craft and Implement Diversity & Inclusion Training. ...
  4. Step 4: Communicate Initiatives. ...
  5. Step 5: Measure and Dispatch Results.
21 Apr 2022

What is the difference between equity diversity and inclusion? ›

Diversity is about differences, equity is about providing equal access, and inclusion is about fostering a sense of value and empowerment in employees. A substantial number of employees and job seekers consider a company's diversity to be very important when applying.

What are EDI practices? ›

EDI-RP involves: promoting diversity in the composition of teams and recruitment of trainees (students, emerging scholars and highly qualified personnel); fostering an equitable, inclusive and accessible research work environment for team members and trainees; and.

How do you implement DEI program? ›

  1. GET LEADERSHIP BUY-IN. ...
  2. SET GOALS TO MEET DEI TARGETS. ...
  3. ESTABLISH AN EMPLOYEE RESOURCE GROUP (ERG) ...
  4. DEVELOP DEI RECRUITING INITIATIVES AND PRACTICES. ...
  5. HOLD FIRM AND EMPLOYEES ACCOUNTABLE. ...
  6. DO GOOD TO DO WELL.
8 Oct 2021

What is a DEI vision statement? ›

A DEI statement outlines a company's commitment to furthering diversity, equity, and inclusion in the workplace. While no two DEI statements will look identical, they'll usually touch on the role of DEI in shaping company values and the overarching ways that DEI manifests itself through company actions.

What is a DEI roadmap? ›

The Diversity, Equality and Inclusion (DEI) Roadmap is a framework of guidance and support for member bodies at all stages of their diversity work. It is designed to help develop a plan and signpost to relevant good practice resources, initiatives and guidance.

What are the 7 types of diversity? ›

Here's a breakdown of these forms of diversity:
  • Cultural diversity. This type of diversity is related to each person's ethnicity and it's usually the set of norms we get from the society we were raised in or our family's values. ...
  • Race diversity. ...
  • Religious diversity. ...
  • Age diversity. ...
  • Sex / Gender / Sexual orientation. ...
  • Disability.

What does a good DEI plan look like? ›

A good plan will articulate the expected business impact to your firm with increased DEI. Expected outcomes could include increased customer retention, new product innovation, more revenue per customer, higher win rates on proposals, and lower customer acquisition costs, just to name a few.

What does a good DEI program look like? ›

Quality DEI initiatives should incorporate policy decisions into all facets of operations; this means going beyond policy statements during new employee onboarding to truly encompass all areas of business, including day-to-day business processes and employee relations.

What makes a good DEI statement? ›

Your statement should provide diversity, equity, and inclusion definitions for your culture. It should connect DEI to your specific mission, vision, and values, and demonstrate what living your DEI statement looks like in real life. A good DEI statement includes the current state of diversity, equity, and inclusion.

How do you implement DEI in the workplace? ›

DEI Strategies in the Workplace
  1. Embrace the Power of Employee Resource Groups. ...
  2. Prioritize Women's Development. ...
  3. Reframe the Role of Coaching. ...
  4. Seek Buy-In from Senior Leaders. ...
  5. Consider DEI from the Start. ...
  6. Measure Your DEI Efforts. ...
  7. Prioritize Open Communication.
27 Jul 2022

What does DEI look like in the workplace? ›

What does DEI mean in the workplace? In a workplace setting, DEI relates to actions taken in order to shift mindsets, behaviors, and practices toward equitable and inclusive leadership for individuals, teams, and organizations.

What makes a good diversity and inclusion policy? ›

The policy should state the organisation's commitment to ensuring an equitable, diverse and inclusive workplace. The policy should also include the process for making complaints of discrimination in the workplace, and how the company will monitor and assess the effectiveness of the policy and working best practices.

What are DEI initiatives examples? ›

Examples of DE&I initiatives are changes in policies and practices, staff training, targeted recruiting, and employer-sponsored DE&I awareness events for employees.

How do you start a DEI initiative at work? ›

Photos courtesy of the individual members.
  1. Start With A Culture Assessment.
  2. Align DEI Initiatives With Organizational Goals.
  3. Consider Invisible Factors.
  4. Be Transparent About Demographics And Salary.
  5. Stop Saying Words And Start Thinking Action.
  6. Create Standards And Practices To Ensure Success.
8 Sept 2021

What are the 3 pillars of inclusion? ›

Gallup's research finds that there are three requirements that must be present in each of the strategies.
  • Employees are treated with respect. A culture of inclusiveness is rooted in respect. ...
  • Employees are valued for their strengths. ...
  • Leaders do what is right.
17 Sept 2018

What are the six principles of equity in the workplace? ›

The six principles of work equity are diversity, inclusion, equal opportunity, fairness, transparency, and accountability. Combined, they create a fair and inclusive workplace where all individuals have equivalent job and promotion opportunities.

Why DEI is important in the workplace? ›

Studies show DEI has the potential to increase sales revenue, increase customer base and ultimately increase profits. DEI is not only the right thing to do, it also makes good business sense. backgrounds, identities and experiences collectively and as individuals.

What are the 6 best strategies for working with diversity? ›

Six Strategies for Embracing Diversity in the Workplace
  • Start the conversation. ...
  • Increase accountability and transparency. ...
  • Develop inclusive leadership skills. ...
  • Notice the diversity (or lack of it) during discussions and decisions. ...
  • Pay attention to how all people are treated. ...
  • Act as a vocal ally.

What are 3 ways to promote diversity? ›

What are the best ways to promote diversity?
  • Educate Managers on the Benefits of Diversity in the Workplace.
  • Create More Inclusive Workplace Policies.
  • Communicate Clearly and Create Employee-Led Task Forces.
  • Offer Meaningful Opportunities for Employee Engagement.
  • Create Mentorship Programs.
  • [
22 Aug 2022

What can employers do to increase diversity? ›

11 Ways to Increase Workplace Diversity
  1. Leverage diverse job boards. ...
  2. Highlight diversity on the career page on your website. ...
  3. Provide targeted internships and scholarships. ...
  4. Offer diverse mentorships. ...
  5. Conduct diversity training. ...
  6. Create an inclusion council. ...
  7. Reward diverse referrals. ...
  8. Celebrate employee differences.
3 Feb 2021

What are 3 major differences between diversity and inclusion? ›

Mitjans: Diversity is the "what"; inclusion is the "how." Diversity focuses on the makeup of your workforce — demographics such as gender, race/ethnicity, age, sexual orientation, veteran status, just to name a few, and inclusion is a measure of culture that enables diversity to thrive.

How do you build equity in the workplace? ›

10 effective ways to promote equity in the workplace
  1. Understand and promote the importance of equity.
  2. Evaluate and improve your equity practices.
  3. Communicate your targets and share progress.
  4. Make wage equity a priority.
  5. Prioritize equitable representation.
  6. Think about equity recruitment.
  7. Review and upgrade your onboarding.
2 Nov 2021

What's the role of HR in effective EDI? ›

When it comes to EDI, HR is perfectly placed to see the benefits and bear the consequences of good/bad EDI practices. HR must be vocal in resisting arbitrary approaches to EDI, such as unconscious bias training without a clear EDI plan, strategy and relevant SMART objectives.

What are examples of equality in the workplace? ›

Equality in the workplace means equal job opportunities and fairness for employees and job applicants. You must not treat people unfairly because of reasons protected by discrimination law ('protected characteristics'). For example, because of a person's sex, age or race.

What is EDI equality? ›

EDI is the abbreviated term for Equality, Diversity and Inclusion. It ensures fair treatment and opportunity for all with the aim of eliminating prejudice and discrimination based on an individual groups character traits.

How do you write a DEI strategy? ›

Here are some tips for creating a winning DEI strategy:
  1. Make it specific and actionable. As with any goal, specificity is key to success. ...
  2. Make it measurable. ...
  3. Communicate! ...
  4. Don't focus solely on hiring. ...
  5. Start with what you already have. ...
  6. Get employee feedback. ...
  7. Don't forget about culture.
1 Mar 2022

How do you write a diversity statement example? ›

I believe equal opportunity is extremely important and every student is unique in their own way. I strive to create an open, inclusive, and equal environment in which every student has the opportunity to flourish.

What is an equity and inclusion statement? ›

Equity: Fair and equitable treatment, access, opportunity, and engagement for all, Inclusion: Environment that respects and values all perspectives, especially ensuring that persons within historically underrepresented groups are included and represented.

How do you start a DEI journey? ›

Be honest about where you are today.

Start by reaching out and listening at an individual level. Begin with your most impacted employees, or those in your close circle. Doing so helps build a foundation of trust. Then give employees an opportunity to share honest feedback through an anonymous survey.

What is a diversity and inclusion roadmap? ›

The Diversity & Inclusion Team has developed a Roadmap to help frame discussion around attracting and retaining a diverse range of staff and building a more inclusive working environment. It suggests ways in which you might incorporate this into local actions and initiatives.

What is a diversity roadmap? ›

The Diversity Roadmap is designed to help law firms and corporations embrace greater diversity, equity, inclusion, and belonging.

How do you create a diversity and inclusion framework? ›

Steps for Building a D&I Program
  1. Step 1: Collect the Data. ...
  2. Step 2: Identify Areas of Concern and Develop Objectives. ...
  3. Step 3: Craft and Implement Diversity & Inclusion Training. ...
  4. Step 4: Communicate Initiatives. ...
  5. Step 5: Measure and Dispatch Results.
21 Apr 2022

What is the meaning of DEI? ›

Defining diversity, equity and inclusion.

What are DEI strategies? ›

DEI Strategies in the Workplace
  • Embrace the Power of Employee Resource Groups. ...
  • Prioritize Women's Development. ...
  • Reframe the Role of Coaching. ...
  • Seek Buy-In from Senior Leaders. ...
  • Consider DEI from the Start. ...
  • Measure Your DEI Efforts. ...
  • Prioritize Open Communication.
27 Jul 2022

What are DEI initiatives examples? ›

Examples of DE&I initiatives are changes in policies and practices, staff training, targeted recruiting, and employer-sponsored DE&I awareness events for employees.

What does DEI look like in the workplace? ›

What does DEI mean in the workplace? In a workplace setting, DEI relates to actions taken in order to shift mindsets, behaviors, and practices toward equitable and inclusive leadership for individuals, teams, and organizations.

What are the six principles of equity in the workplace? ›

The six principles of work equity are diversity, inclusion, equal opportunity, fairness, transparency, and accountability. Combined, they create a fair and inclusive workplace where all individuals have equivalent job and promotion opportunities.

Why DEI is important in the workplace? ›

Studies show DEI has the potential to increase sales revenue, increase customer base and ultimately increase profits. DEI is not only the right thing to do, it also makes good business sense. backgrounds, identities and experiences collectively and as individuals.

What does a good DEI plan look like? ›

A good plan will articulate the expected business impact to your firm with increased DEI. Expected outcomes could include increased customer retention, new product innovation, more revenue per customer, higher win rates on proposals, and lower customer acquisition costs, just to name a few.

What does a good DEI program look like? ›

Quality DEI initiatives should incorporate policy decisions into all facets of operations; this means going beyond policy statements during new employee onboarding to truly encompass all areas of business, including day-to-day business processes and employee relations.

What makes a good DEI program? ›

DEI initiatives need to be a continuous wheel of tools, resources, and support to help workers of all backgrounds respect differences, foster connections, and identify and mitigate bias.

What are the 3 pillars of inclusion? ›

Gallup's research finds that there are three requirements that must be present in each of the strategies.
  • Employees are treated with respect. A culture of inclusiveness is rooted in respect. ...
  • Employees are valued for their strengths. ...
  • Leaders do what is right.
17 Sept 2018

What is the difference between D&I and DEI? ›

The obvious difference between DEI and D&I is the inclusion of “E” – equity – in the former acronym. This doesn't necessarily mean that companies that explicitly pursue “D&I” policies and programs have made a conscious decision to exclude equity.

How do you build equity in the workplace? ›

10 effective ways to promote equity in the workplace
  1. Understand and promote the importance of equity.
  2. Evaluate and improve your equity practices.
  3. Communicate your targets and share progress.
  4. Make wage equity a priority.
  5. Prioritize equitable representation.
  6. Think about equity recruitment.
  7. Review and upgrade your onboarding.
2 Nov 2021

Videos

1. Division 18 Town Hall: APA's Equity, Diversity, & Inclusion Strategy & Resources
(APA Division 18 - Psychologists in Public Service )
2. Belonging, A Critical Piece of Diversity, Equity & Inclusion | Carin Taylor | TEDxSonomaCounty
(TEDx Talks)
3. Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion as Action: Designing a Collective EDI Strategy
(SJSU School of Information)
4. I am: Embracing Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion (DEI) Curriculum Preview
(Skillsoft YouTube)
5. Webinar recording: Integrating equity, diversity and inclusion into municipal climate action
(FCM Channel English)
6. Free Webinar – What is DEI (Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion)?
(Accelebrate)
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