Racial and ethnic identity (2023)

When you are writing, you need to follow general principles to ensure that your language is free of bias. Here we provide guidelines for talking about racial and ethnic identity with inclusivity and respect.

Terms used to refer to racial and ethnic groups continue to change over time. One reason for this is simply personal preference; preferred designations are as varied as the people they name. Another reason is that designations can become dated over time and may hold negative connotations. When describing racial and ethnic groups, be appropriately specific and sensitive to issues of labeling as described in general principles for reducing bias.

Race refers to physical differences that groups and cultures consider socially significant. For example, people might identify their race as Aboriginal, African American or Black, Asian, European American or White, Native American, Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, Māori, or some other race. Ethnicity refers to shared cultural characteristics such as language, ancestry, practices, and beliefs. For example, people might identify as Latino or another ethnicity. Be clear about whether you are referring to a racial group or to an ethnic group. Race is a social construct that is not universal, so one must be careful not to impose racial labels on ethnic groups. Whenever possible, use the racial and/or ethnic terms that your participants themselves use. Be sure that the racial and ethnic categories you use are as clear and specific as possible. For example, instead of categorizing participants as Asian American or Hispanic American, you could use more specific labels that identify their nation or region of origin, such as Japanese American or Cuban American. Use commonly accepted designations (e.g., census categories) while being sensitive to participants’ preferred designation.

Racial and ethnic identity (1) Racial and ethnic identity is covered in Section 5.7 of the APA Publication Manual, Seventh Edition

Racial and ethnic identity (2)

This guidance has been expanded from the 6th edition.

Spelling and capitalization of racial and ethnic terms

Racial and ethnic groups are designated by proper nouns and are capitalized. Therefore, use “Black” and “White” instead of “black” and “white” (do not use colors to refer to other human groups; doing so is considered pejorative). Likewise, capitalize terms such as “Native American,” “Hispanic,” and so on. Capitalize “Indigenous” and “Aboriginal” whenever they are used. Capitalize “Indigenous People” or “Aboriginal People” when referring to a specific group (e.g., the Indigenous Peoples of Canada), but use lowercase for “people” when describing persons who are Indigenous or Aboriginal (e.g., “the authors were all Indigenous people but belonged to different nations”).

Do not use hyphens in multiword names, even if the names act as unit modifiers (e.g., write “Asian American participants,” not “Asian-American participants”). If people belong to multiple racial or ethnic groups, the names of the specific groups are capitalized, but the terms “multiracial,” “biracial,” “multi-ethnic,” and so on are lowercase.

Terms for specific groups

Designations for specific ethnic and racial groups are described next. These groups frequently are included in studies published in APA journals; the examples provided are far from exhaustive but illustrate some of the complexities of labeling.

People of African origin

When writing about people of African ancestry, several factors inform the appropriate terms to use. People of African descent have widely varied cultural backgrounds, family histories, and family experiences. Some will be from Caribbean islands, Latin America, various regions in the United States, countries in Africa, or elsewhere. Some American people of African ancestry prefer “Black,” and others prefer “African American”; both terms are acceptable. However, “African American” should not be used as an umbrella term for people of African ancestry worldwide because it obscures other ethnicities or national origins, such as Nigerian, Kenyan, Jamaican, or Bahamian; in these cases use “Black.” The terms “Negro” and “Afro-American” are outdated; therefore, their use is generally inappropriate.

People of Asian origin

When writing about people of Asian ancestry from Asia, the term “Asian” is appropriate; for people of Asian descent from the United States or Canada, the appropriate term is “Asian American” or “Asian Canadian,” respectively. It is problematic to group “Asian” and “Asian American” as if they are synonymous. This usage reinforces the idea that Asian Americans are perpetual foreigners. “Asian” refers to Asians in Asia, not in the United States, and should not be used to refer to Asian Americans. The older term “Oriental” is primarily used to refer to cultural objects such as carpets and is pejorative when used to refer to people. To provide more specificity, “Asian origin” may be divided regionally, for example, into South Asia (including most of India and countries such as Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Nepal), Southeast Asia (including the eastern parts of India and countries such as Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines), and East Asia (including countries such as China, Vietnam, Japan, South Korea and North Korea, and Taiwan). The corresponding terms (e.g., East Asian) can be used; however, refer to the specific nation or region of origin when possible.

People of European origin

When writing about people of European ancestry, the terms “White” and “European American” are acceptable. Adjust the latter term as needed for location, for example, “European,” “European American,” and “European Australian” for people of European descent living in Europe, the United States, and Australia, respectively. The use of the term “Caucasian” as an alternative to “White” or “European” is discouraged because it originated as a way of classifying White people as a race to be favorably compared with other races. As with all discussions of race and ethnicity, it is preferable to be more specific about regional (e.g., Southern European, Scandinavian) or national (e.g., Italian, Irish, Swedish, French, Polish) origin when possible.

Indigenous Peoples around the world

When writing about Indigenous Peoples, use the names that they call themselves. In general, refer to an Indigenous group as a “people” or “nation” rather than as a “tribe.”

  • In North America, the collective terms “Native American” and “Native North American” are acceptable (and may be preferred to “American Indian”). “Indian” usually refers to people from India. Specify the nation or people if possible (e.g., Cherokee, Navajo, Sioux).
  • Hawaiian Natives may identify as “Native American,” “Hawaiian Native,” “Indigenous Peoples of the Hawaiian Islands,” and/or “Pacific Islander.”
  • In Canada, refer to the Indigenous Peoples collectively as “Indigenous Peoples” or “Aboriginal Peoples” (International Journal of Indigenous Health, n.d.); specify the nation or people if possible (e.g., People of the First Nations of Canada, People of the First Nations, or First Nations People; Métis; Inuit).
  • In Alaska, the Indigenous People may identify as “Alaska Natives.” The Indigenous Peoples in Alaska, Canada, Siberia, and Greenland may identify as a specific nation (e.g., Inuit, Iñupiat). Avoid the term “Eskimo” because it may be considered pejorative.
  • In Latin America and the Caribbean, refer to the Indigenous Peoples collectively as “Indigenous Peoples” and by name if possible (e.g., Quechua, Aymara, Taíno, Nahuatl).
  • In Australia, the Indigenous Peoples may identify as “Aboriginal People” or “Aboriginal Australians” and “Torres Strait Islander People” or “Torres Strait Island Australians.” Refer to specific groups when people use these terms to refer to themselves (e.g., Anangu Pitjantjatjara, Arrernte).
  • In New Zealand, the Indigenous People may identify as “Māori” or the “Māori people” (the proper spelling includes the diacritical macron over the “a”).

For information on citing the Traditional Knowledge or Oral Traditions of Indigenous Peoples as well as the capitalization of terms related to Indigenous Peoples, see Section 8.9 of the Publication Manual.

People of Middle Eastern origin

When writing about people of Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) descent, state the nation of origin (e.g., Iran, Iraq, Egypt, Lebanon, Israel) when possible. In some cases, people of MENA descent who claim Arab ancestry and reside in the United States may be referred to as “Arab Americans.” In all cases, it is best to allow individuals to self-identify.

People of Hispanic or Latinx ethnicity

When writing about people who identify as Hispanic, Latino (or Latinx, etc.), Chicano, or another related designation, authors should consult with their participants to determine the appropriate choice. Note that “Hispanic” is not necessarily an all-encompassing term, and the labels “Hispanic” and “Latino” have different connotations. The term “Latino” (and its related forms) might be preferred by those originating from Latin America, including Brazil. Some use the word “Hispanic” to refer to those who speak Spanish; however, not every group in Latin America speaks Spanish (e.g., in Brazil, the official language is Portuguese). The word “Latino” is gendered (i.e., “Latino” is masculine and “Latina” is feminine); the use of the word “Latin@” to mean both Latino and Latina is now widely accepted. “Latinx” can also be used as a gender-neutral or nonbinary term inclusive of all genders. There are compelling reasons to use any of the terms “Latino,” “Latina,” “Latino/a,” “Latin@,” and/or “Latinx” (see de Onís, 2017), and various groups advocate for the use of different forms. Use the term(s) your participants or population uses; if you are not working directly with this population but it is a focus of your research, it may be helpful to explain why you chose the term you used or to choose a more inclusive term like “Latinx.” In general, naming a nation or region of origin is preferred (e.g., Bolivian, Salvadoran, or Costa Rican is more specific than Latino, Latinx, Latin American, or Hispanic).

Parallel comparisons among groups

Nonparallel designations (e.g., “African Americans and Whites,” “Asian Americans and Black Americans”) should be avoided because one group is described by color, whereas the other group is not. Instead, use “Blacks and Whites” or “African Americans and European Americans” for the former example and “Asian Americans and African Americans” for the latter example. Do not use the phrase “White Americans and racial minorities”; the rich diversity within racial minorities is minimized when it is compared with the term “White Americans.”

(Video) Race and Ethnic Identity

Avoiding essentialism

Language that essentializes or reifies race is strongly discouraged and is generally considered inappropriate. For example, phrases such as “the Black race” and “the White race” are essentialist in nature, portray human groups monolithically, and often perpetuate stereotypes.

Writing about “minorities”

To refer to non-White racial and ethnic groups collectively, use terms such as “people of color” or “underrepresented groups” rather than “minorities.” The use of “minority” may be viewed pejoratively because it is usually equated with being less than, oppressed, or deficient in comparison with the majority (i.e., White people). Rather, a minority group is a population subgroup with ethnic, racial, social, religious, or other characteristics different from those of the majority of the population, though the relevance of this term is changing as the demographics of the population change (APA, 2015). If a distinction is needed between the dominant racial group and nondominant racial groups, use a modifier (e.g., “ethnic,” “racial”) when using the word “minority” (e.g., ethnic minority, racial minority, racial-ethnic minority). When possible, use the specific name of the group or groups to which you are referring.

Do not assume that members of minority groups are underprivileged; underprivileged means having less money, education, resources, and so forth than the other people in a society and may refer to individuals or subgroups in any racial or ethnic group. Terms such as “economically marginalized” and “economically exploited” may also be used rather than “underprivileged.” Whenever possible, use more specific terms (e.g., schools with majority Black populations that are underfunded) or refer to discrimination or systematic oppression as a whole.

Examples of bias-free language

The following are examples of bias-free language for racial and ethnic identity. Both problematic and preferred examples are presented with explanatory comments.

1. Description of African American or Black people

Problematic:
We interviewed 25 Afro-American people living in rural Louisiana.

Preferred:
We interviewed 25 Black people living in rural Louisiana.
We interviewed 25 African Americans living in rural Louisiana.

Comment: “Afro-American” and “Negro” have become dated; therefore, usage of these terms generally is inappropriate. Specify region or nation of origin when possible to avoid the impression that all people of African descent have the same cultural background, family history, or family experiences. Note that “Black” is appropriate rather than “African American” to describe people of African descent from various national origins (e.g., Haitian, Nigerian).

2. Description of Asian or Asian American people

Problematic:
Participants were 300 Orientals.

Preferred:
There were 300 Asian participants; among these, 100 were from South Asia (India, Nepal, Bangladesh), 100 were from Southeast Asia (Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam), and 100 were from East Asia (China, South Korea, Japan).

Comment: “Orientals” is considered pejorative; use “Asian” for people from Asia, “Asian American” for people of Asian descent in North America, or be more specific by providing nation and region of origin (Japanese, Chinese, Vietnamese, etc.).

3. Description of European American or White people

Problematic:
All participants were Caucasian.

Preferred:
All participants were European American.
All participants were White.

(Video) How Can I Have a Positive Racial Identity? I'm White! | Ali Michael | TEDxCheltenham

Comment: The term “Caucasian” is considered offensive to some cultures; use “White” or “European American” instead for people of European descent living in North America, or be more specific by providing the nation of origin.

4. Description of Indigenous people

Problematic:
The 50 Indians represented…

Preferred:
The 50 Native Americans (25 Choctaw, 15 Hopi, and 10 Seminole) represented…
The 50 Indigenous People (23 First Nations, 17 Inuit, 10 Métis) represented…

Comment: When appropriate, authors should identify groups indigenous to North America by specific group or nation; when the broader designation is appropriate, note that “Native American” may be preferred to “American Indian.” “Indian” refers to people from India. In general, refer to a group as a “people” or “nation” rather than as a “tribe.”

Problematic:
We studied Eskimos.

Preferred:
We studied Inuit from Canada and Aleuts.
The 50 Indigenous People (23 First Nations and 27 Inuit) represented…

Comment: Native peoples of northern Canada, Alaska, eastern Siberia, and Greenland may prefer “Inuk” (“Inuit” for plural) to “Eskimo.” Alaska Natives include many groups in addition to Eskimos. “Indigenous Peoples” may be used when the broader designation is appropriate.

5. Description of Latinx or Hispanic people

Problematic:
Participants were 200 Hispanics/Latinos.

Preferred:
Participants were from Central America (150 from Guatemala, 50 from Honduras, and 50 from Belize).

Comment: “Hispanic” and “Latinx” (or Latino, etc.) have different meanings; ask participants to self-identify with a term and use a precise nationality if possible.

6. Racial-ethnic comparisons

Problematic:
Participants’ race was categorized as either White or non-White.

Preferred:
Participants’ race was categorized as European American, African American, Asian American, or Latin American.

Comment: Use parallel terms, especially in table labels. “Non-White” implies a standard of comparison and is imprecise.

7. Discussion of racial and ethnic minorities

Problematic:
minorities
minority students

Preferred:
racial minorities, ethnic minorities, racial-ethnic minorities
racial minority students, ethnic minority students, racial-ethnic minority students
people of color
underrepresented people, underrepresented groups

Comment: “Minority” is usually equated with being less than, oppressed, and deficient in comparison with the majority. When it is necessary to compare a dominant racial group with a nondominant racial group, use a modifier like “racial,” “ethnic,” or “racial-ethnic.” Otherwise, other terms may be preferred, such as “people of color” to refer to non-White racial and ethnic groups or “underrepresented people.”

8. Use of qualifying adjectives with racial and ethnic identity

Problematic:
the articulate Mexican American professor

(Video) HOW MY VIEWS ON RACIAL IDENTITY HAVE CHANGED SINCE LIVING IN GERMANY

Preferred:
the Mexican American professor

Comment: Qualifying adjectives may imply that the “articulate” Mexican American professor is an exception to the norm (for Mexican American professors). Depending on the context of the sentence, ethnic identity may not be relevant and therefore should not be mentioned.

References

American Psychological Association. (2015). Guidelines for psychological practice with transgender and gender nonconforming people. American Psychologist, 70(9), 832–864. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0039906

de Onís, C. M. (2017). What's in an “x”? An exchange about the politics of “Latinx.” Chiricú Journal: Latina/o Literatures, Arts, and Cultures, 1(2), 78–91. https://doi.org/10.2979/chiricu.1.2.07

(Video) Race & Ethnicity: Crash Course Sociology #34

From the APA Style blog

Three key things you should know about APA’s new inclusive language guidelines

If you are working to champion equity, diversity, and inclusion in the spaces that you learn, teach, work, or conduct research, these guidelines are for you.

Last updated: July 2022Date created: September 2019

(Video) My Ethnic Identity Crisis

American Psychological Association. (2022). Racial and ethnic identity. https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/bias-free-language/racial-ethnic-minorities

FAQs

How do you ask about race and ethnicity in a survey? ›

First ask, “Are you of Hispanic, Latino, or of Spanish origin?” (ethnicity), followed by a race identification question like, “How would you describe yourself?” The first question can be a simple Yes/No radio button; the second should include these commonly accepted options: American Indian or Alaska Native.

What is my ethnic background if I am white? ›

White – A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa.

Why is it important to study race and ethnicity? ›

Help students reflect on their own racial identities.

Young people who have explored their ethnic and racial background have a better understanding of the world in which they live and are able to draw on this when they experience or witness racial discrimination.

What is your ethnicity options? ›

Definitions for Racial and Ethnic Categories
  • American Indian or Alaska Native. ...
  • Asian. ...
  • Black or African American. ...
  • Hispanic or Latino. ...
  • Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. ...
  • White.
8 Apr 2015

How do you answer race on a form? ›

Race (select all that apply):
  1. American Indian or Alaska Native.
  2. Asian.
  3. Black or African American.
  4. Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander.
  5. White.

Are race and ethnicity the same thing? ›

Race refers to the concept of dividing people into groups on the basis of various sets of physical characteristics and the process of ascribing social meaning to those groups. Ethnicity describes the culture of people in a given geographic region, including their language, heritage, religion and customs.

How can I prove my ethnicity? ›

The most common way for applicants to demonstrate their ethnic or racial background is by producing the birth certificate or death certificate of a parent or grandparent during the certification process.

What is the most common ethnicity? ›

The most common is German-American, which 42.8 million Americans identify with. Many people came to the U.S. from Germany in the 19th and early 20th centuries. German American is the most common ethnic group in over half the states. The largest number of Germans are found in the Midwest, West, and Pennsylvania.

Is Latino a race or ethnicity? ›

Federal policy defines “Hispanic” not as a race, but as an ethnicity. And it prescribes that Hispanics can in fact be of any race. But these census findings suggest that standard U.S. racial categories might either be confusing or not provide relevant options for Hispanics to describe their racial identity.

How do race and ethnicity affect our everyday life? ›

Racial and ethnic prejudices affect the distribution of wealth, power, and opportunity, and create enduring social stratifications. Racial pride can foment racial prejudice, as in the case of white supremacists.

How does race affect a person's identity? ›

Individuals' racial/ethnic identity is an important basis for self-identity because it instills a sense of identification with a given group's cultural values, kinship, and beliefs (Phinney, 1996).

Why is it important to know your ethnicity? ›

Ethnic and racial identities are important for many young people, particularly those who are members of minority groups. These dimensions of the self may instill feelings of: Belonging to a particular group or groups. Identification with that group; shared commitment and values.

What is my ethnicity if I am black? ›

Black or African American

Includes persons having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa, including Black Americans, Africans, Haitians, and residents of Caribbean Islands of African descent. African – Includes people from countries such as Ghana, Nigeria, Niger, Liberia, etc.

What ethnicity means? ›

Ethnicity is an identity based upon a presumption of shared history and common cultural inheritance. Ethnic identity is shaped by both ethnic affiliation and ethnic attribution. Ethnic affiliation refers to individuals' own sense of group membership and the characteristics of the group as defined by its members.

How many ethnic races are there? ›

Most anthropologists recognize 3 or 4 basic races of man in existence today. These races can be further subdivided into as many as 30 subgroups.

What do I write for race? ›

Categorizing Race and Ethnicity
  1. White.
  2. Black or African American.
  3. American Indian or Alaska Native.
  4. Asian.
  5. Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander.
4 Aug 2021

What is an example of race? ›

The Census Bureau defines race as a person's self-identification with one or more social groups. An individual can report as White, Black or African American, Asian, American Indian and Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, or some other race.

What is your nationality answer? ›

Answer: Your nationality is the country you come from: American, Canadian, and Russian are all nationalities. Everyone has a gender, race, sexual orientation...and a nationality. A person's nationality is where they are a legal citizen, usually in the country where they were born.

What is an example of race and ethnicity? ›

For example, people might identify their race as Aboriginal, African American or Black, Asian, European American or White, Native American, Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, Māori, or some other race. Ethnicity refers to shared cultural characteristics such as language, ancestry, practices, and beliefs.

What is culture race and ethnicity? ›

Description: While race is ascribed to individuals on the basis of physical traits, ethnicity encompasses everything from language, to nationality, culture, and religion. We generally assume that people see our race, ethnicity, and culture the way we see ourselves.

What are the similarities between race and ethnicity? ›

Ethnicity is similar in concept to race. But while races have often been distinguished on the basis of physical characteristics, especially skin color, ethnic distinctions generally focus on such cultural characteristics as language, history, religion, and customs (Montague, 1942).

Is my ethnicity where I was born? ›

Ethnicity: Your ethnicity refers to your background heritage, culture, religion, ancestry or sometimes the country where you were born.

Whats the difference between ethnicity and nationality? ›

National origin or nationality: This refers to where a person was born. Regardless of their personal characteristics, which can vary significantly, you must not discriminate based on where they came from. Ethnicity: This refers to cultural characteristics and what makes someone part of another group.

What is my ethnicity if I am Mexican? ›

About Hispanic Origin

OMB defines "Hispanic or Latino" as a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of race.

What makes an ethnic group? ›

A group of people who share a similar culture (beliefs, values, and behaviors), language, religion, ancestry, or other characteristic that is often handed down from one generation to the next. They may come from the same country or live together in the same area.

What is the most race in the world? ›

The world's largest ethnic group is Han Chinese, with Mandarin being the world's most spoken language in terms of native speakers.

What are the different races of humans? ›

(A) The old concept of the “five races:” African, Asian, European, Native American, and Oceanian. According to this view, variation between the races is large, and thus, the each race is a separate category. Additionally, individual races are thought to have a relatively uniform genetic identity.

What are 10 different races? ›

  • 4.1 White and European Americans.
  • 4.2 Hispanic and Latino Americans.
  • 4.3 Black and African Americans.
  • 4.4 Asian Americans.
  • 4.5 American Indians and Alaska Natives.
  • 4.6 Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.
  • 4.7 Middle Easterners and North Africans.
  • 4.8 Two or more races. 4.8.1 Genetic admixture.

How many human races are there? ›

In contrast to chimpanzees, the five major “races” of humans account for only 4.3% of human genetic variation – well below the 25% threshold. The genetic variation in our species is overwhelmingly variation among individuals (93.2%).

Why do they ask if I'm Hispanic? ›

We ask a question about whether a person is of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin to create statistics about this ethnic group. Local, state, tribal, and federal programs use these data, and they are critical factors in the basic research behind numerous policies, particularly for civil rights.

How does race affect today's society? ›

Societies use race to establish and justify systems of power, privilege, disenfranchisement, and oppression. American Anthropological Association states that "the 'racial' worldview was invented to assign some groups to perpetual low status, while others were permitted access to privilege, power, and wealth.

How would you describe your cultural identity? ›

Culture is the shared characteristics of a group of people, which encompasses , place of birth, religion, language, cuisine, social behaviors, art, literature, and music.

How is myself shaped and influenced by culture? ›

How we see ourselves shapes our lives, and is shaped by our cultural context. Self-perceptions influence, among other things, how we think about the world, our social relationships, health and lifestyle choices, community engagement, political actions, and ultimately our own and other people's well-being.

Why is identity important to an individual? ›

Why is identity important? Having an identity can give you a sense of belonging, which is important to your well-being and confidence. You might make friends with others who have similar interests to you. This will make you both more optimistic and also more open to people from different backgrounds.

How does discrimination affect a person's identity? ›

At the heart of all forms of discrimination is prejudice based on concepts of identity, and the need to identify with a certain group. This can lead to division, hatred and even the dehumanization of other people because they have a different identity.

What are cultural identity issues? ›

What are cultural identity issues? Cultural issues cover a broad range of concerns including race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, gender, and disability. Culture is a term that we use to refer to beliefs and customs employed by a particular group.

What impact does race have on education? ›

How does racism in education impact Black students? Black students are less likely than white students to have access to college-ready courses. Black students have less access to honors or AP classes. Predominately Black schools are staffed with less qualified teachers.

How does ethnicity affect education? ›

'Race' and ethnicity continue to be major factors influencing children's and adults' experiences of education at all levels and in a variety of respects. These include academic achievement, professional employment, social interactions, parental involvement, curriculum development, assessment issues and so on.

How do you resolve ethnic conflict? ›

Sub-national boundaries aligned with natural communities can reduce ethnic tensions and prevent violence. Self-governance at the neighborhood, municipal or district-level can offer communities a sense of autonomy and safety.

Is African an ethnicity? ›

The term African [origin] in the context of scientific writing on race and ethnicity usually refers to a person with African ancestral origins who self identifies or is identified by others as African, but usually excludes those residents of Africa of other ancestry, for example, Europeans and South Asians and ...

What is another word for ethnicity? ›

What is another word for ethnicity?
raceorigin
cultureidentity
nationalitycustoms
traditionsethnic background
way of lifecolorUS
18 more rows

What is ethnic origin example? ›

Ethnic origin refers to a person's 'roots' and should not be confused with citizenship, nationality, language or place of birth. For example, a person who has Canadian citizenship, speaks Panjabi (Punjabi) and was born in the United States may report Guyanese ethnic origin.

How do you speak ethnic? ›

How To Say Ethnic - YouTube

What is my ethnicity if I am white? ›

White – A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa.

How do you ask about race and ethnicity in a survey? ›

First ask, “Are you of Hispanic, Latino, or of Spanish origin?” (ethnicity), followed by a race identification question like, “How would you describe yourself?” The first question can be a simple Yes/No radio button; the second should include these commonly accepted options: American Indian or Alaska Native.

What are the three races of humans? ›

Abstract. Using gene frequency data for 62 protein loci and 23 blood group loci, we studied the genetic relationship of the three major races of man, Caucasoid, Negroid, and Mongoloid. Genetic distance data indicate that Caucasoid and Mongoloid are somewhat closer to each other than to Negroid.

How do you ask about ethnicity? ›

Is There a Right Way to Ask Someone About Their Ethnicity?
  1. Begin a relationship. Invite them to coffee or lunch where you can get to know one another better. ...
  2. Listen to their stories and experiences. Ask questions like, “Tell me more about yourself.” Listen to what they share. ...
  3. Be sensitive. Pause for a moment.

What ethnicities should be in a survey? ›

Instead of allowing a multiracial category, the OMB adopted a standard of allowing respondents to select one or more races when they self-identify.
...
New Race and Ethnicity Standards
  • American Indian or Alaska Native.
  • Asian.
  • Black or African American.
  • Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander.
  • White.

What is an example of race and ethnicity? ›

For example, people might identify their race as Aboriginal, African American or Black, Asian, European American or White, Native American, Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, Māori, or some other race. Ethnicity refers to shared cultural characteristics such as language, ancestry, practices, and beliefs.

What ethnicity means? ›

Ethnicity is an identity based upon a presumption of shared history and common cultural inheritance. Ethnic identity is shaped by both ethnic affiliation and ethnic attribution. Ethnic affiliation refers to individuals' own sense of group membership and the characteristics of the group as defined by its members.

What are different types of ethnicity? ›

Categorizing Race and Ethnicity
  • White.
  • Black or African American.
  • American Indian or Alaska Native.
  • Asian.
  • Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander.
4 Aug 2021

How do you ask someone about their identity? ›

If you're asking someone “do you identify as a man or a woman” so that you can know how to refer to them (i.e. their pronouns) is better to ask, “what are your pronouns?” That's the information you actually want to know (and often need to know) — so ask that instead.

Is Latino a race or ethnicity? ›

Federal policy defines “Hispanic” not as a race, but as an ethnicity. And it prescribes that Hispanics can in fact be of any race. But these census findings suggest that standard U.S. racial categories might either be confusing or not provide relevant options for Hispanics to describe their racial identity.

What are 10 different races? ›

  • 4.1 White and European Americans.
  • 4.2 Hispanic and Latino Americans.
  • 4.3 Black and African Americans.
  • 4.4 Asian Americans.
  • 4.5 American Indians and Alaska Natives.
  • 4.6 Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.
  • 4.7 Middle Easterners and North Africans.
  • 4.8 Two or more races. 4.8.1 Genetic admixture.

What is my race if I am Hispanic? ›

People who identify themselves as Spanish, Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Hispanic or Latino refers to people whose ancestors or descendants originated in Central and South America and in the Caribbean, who follow the customs and cultures of these areas and who may speak Spanish.

What are standard demographic questions? ›

Demographic questions include age, gender, education level, employment status, annual household income, marital and family status, housing, business, and farm ownership.

How do I make my survey more inclusive? ›

6 tips for creating more inclusive surveys
  1. Be mindful about your demographic questions. ...
  2. Be upfront about why you're asking demographic questions. ...
  3. Don't require answers to all your questions. ...
  4. Use skip logic. ...
  5. Be conscious of language. ...
  6. Design your survey with accessibility in mind.
20 Nov 2020

What should be included in demographic information? ›

The common variables gathered in demographic research include age, sex, income level, race, employment, location, homeownership, and level of education. Demographical information makes certain generalizations about groups to identify customers.

How does race and ethnicity affect society? ›

Racial and ethnic prejudices affect the distribution of wealth, power, and opportunity, and create enduring social stratifications. Racial pride can foment racial prejudice, as in the case of white supremacists.

Why is ethnicity important? ›

Individuals' racial/ethnic identity is an important basis for self-identity because it instills a sense of identification with a given group's cultural values, kinship, and beliefs (Phinney, 1996).

What makes an ethnic group? ›

A group of people who share a similar culture (beliefs, values, and behaviors), language, religion, ancestry, or other characteristic that is often handed down from one generation to the next. They may come from the same country or live together in the same area.

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